雅思閱讀IELTS Reading理解時間不足?教你「Topic Sentence閱讀系統」提升速讀能力及技巧,以下供詳細範範列及步驟說明。

 

雅思閱讀IELTS Reading出現的文章不少是【千字文】。最常見的困難就是「理解時間不足」。在我IELTS十多年的教學經驗中,同學其中一個最常問的問題:

1.究竟先看文章,後看問題? 

2.還是先看問題,後看文章?

 

按我的觀察,對閱讀能力高的同學來說,傾向「先看文章後看問題」的方式作答。優點是:通過全文理解可以「省掉」讀完問題後,一段感到摸不著頭腦的摸索時間; 而缺點是: 花了很多時間在理解與題目無關連的內容枝節,以致答題時間不足

 

而對閱讀能力稍遜的同學而言,一般傾向「先看問題後看文章」的方式作答。優點是: 可以透過先對題目的理解,知道要在文章尋找哪些相關資訊;缺點卻是: 很多同學讀完問題後,對文章說些什麼仍摸不著頭腦,花了一段很長的時間在黑暗中摸索,最後仍然是答題時間不足。

 

而我在這裡教的「Topic Sentence閱讀系統」是儘量以兩個原則來設計:

1.「同時」達到以上兩者的優點,

2.善用Reading時間的每分每秒作【相關】理解。

 

經過我們7+3視覺英語所訓練的學生,只要稍對辨認「topic sentence的長難句理解」有一定程度的訓練,【按時、有把握】地完卷就不會是什麼問題。

面對千字文,【Topic Sentence 閱讀系統】的Steps如下:

1. 先理解Introduction (第一段): 因為全篇的內容引言就在這裡,這段是你一會全文理解前的最佳「頭腦熱身」。

2. 去到文章Body(第二段到尾二段)topic sentence: 

3. 如文章Body有小標題,該小標題就是該段的topic idea, 正是找該段topic sentence 的hints(提示)。。

4. 如文章Body沒有小標題,挑選每段paragraphtopic sentence「重點理解」。根據我的IELTS 經驗:

 

– 65%的paragraph第一句是topic sentence

– 20%的paragraph的第二句是topic sentence

– 10%的paragraph的最後句是topic sentence

– 5%的paragraph沒有topic sentence

 3. 花時間細閱理解文中的figures/圖表

  1. 最後理解Conclusion(最後段): 看清楚作者最終交代什麼、最終立場如何。
  2. 最後,才開始看題目,做「關鍵字」挑選,以進行答案的GPS搜尋。

 

關乎「題目關鍵字的挑選與GPS搜尋」會在之後的專題文章中討論。

 

雅思閱讀的「千字文」,約60%是議論/說明文的混合;其餘約40%是說明/描述文的混合。所以明白「說明文Expository Essay」的基本layout=【五大鋪墊】是有助我們於Body挑選恰當的topic sentences以進行理解的。【詳見: IELTS寫作框架:5大鋪墊與範文】

 

5大鋪墊也是文章內容的5大原素 :【現、他、表、理、讓】 

I. 【現】況/【現】實例子

  1. 【他】人看法
  2. 立場【表】達
  3. 【理】據說明
  4. 【讓】步分析

 

Topic sentence是屬「【理】據說明的中心部份,可以是交代原因,更多是【概念的說明或描述】,以支持結論的最終立場/最終信息。」。

 

這篇文章的範例會示範: 「topic sentence如何挑選」的技巧

 

Verification of knowledge

 

Paragraph 1

What counts as knowledge? With the advent of information explosion on internet nowadays, the value of knowledge greatly relies on its accuracy, its potential fields of coverage and its stage in the logic system, though the definition of acknowledging knowledge is diverse to different groups in our society. When we say we know something, do we really know something accurate enough? What is the depth of the knowledge we claim we know? In order to explore these questions, we are going to focus on one particular case of knowledge –health check

 

Paragraph 2

This may seem to be an absurd question: How do you know when you are ill? The initial status of knowledge always comes from intuitive feeling. You know you are ill because you feel ill. Your body tells you that you are ill. But the knowledge of being ill is a little bit complex, it is far complex than feeling pain or discomfort. At times, people experience the symptoms of illness, but maybe they’re just too tired or over-worked or having a hangover. At other times, people may be suffering from an illness but fail to be aware of the illness until it has reached a severer stage. So what counts as knowledge?

 

Paragraph 3

One day you have a bad cough and always seems to be tired. Perhaps it could be from the stress of work or maybe from too much smoking. You ‘feel’ worse and you visit a doctor who listens to your chest and heart, takes your temperature and blood pressure, and then prescribes some antibiotics for your bad cough. Things do not improve a few days later and a return visit to your doctor shocks you. You have been diagnosed with severe pneumonia, drawing on years of training and experience of the practitioner. 

 

Paragraph 4

The scenario is transformed. The status of the knowledge you claim you know has changed. Although you have the same symptoms, you no longer think that it is not just from working pressure or over smoking. You know you need bed rest and off-work because you now know the core reason for such bad feeling. You now have proof, not feelings, that you are ill. This is the result of the combination of your own subjective experience and the diagnosis of someone who has the status of a medical expert. 

 

Paragraph 5

This scenario shows many different sources of knowledge are needed to verify the knowledge we claim we know. In this example, you decide to consult a doctor in the first place because of feeling ill –this is the personal knowledge about your own body. However, the practitioner’s expert diagnosis is based on experience and training, with sources of knowledge like laboratory reports, medical textbook, expertise suggestions…

 

Paragraph 6

Indeed, the knowledge we claim we know should be verified by sources. The subjective knowledge from our own experiences, not having mediated by other sources of knowledge, may not stand long. Sources of knowledge can be diverse, from the common sense of our family and popular culture to expert’s suggestions. We may also rely on the observations of others who know us. Comments from friends such as ‘you do look unwell’ or ‘that’s a bad cough’ might be another source to verify your knowledge. 

 

Paragraph 7

We never know we really know something but we only know we are approaching to know something. That’s why the verification of knowledge is always important in our life.      

 

閱讀次序解說:(灰低字是看題目前的「理解熱身」。) 

 

【更多文章: 7+3視覺英語IELTS Paper 免費練習-三段式操練法】

 

Topic Sentence 閱讀系統步驟

Step 1: introduction, 特別挑出「主句」來深度理解。

題目是Verification of knowledge(知識的檢驗),如果你不懂verification這單詞,也先別急,因為在文中的脈絡也很容易領會到「文中」在談「驗証」的過程。

 

在速讀intro.(paragraph 1)的時候,如遇長難句,一般我會挑「主句」(underlined words)為理解核心。Intro的第二句句子就是一句長難句: 

 

With the advent of information explosion on internet nowadays, the value of knowledge greatly relies on its accuracy, its potential fields of coverage and its stage in the logic system, though the definition of acknowledging knowledge is diverse to different groups in our society. 

 

其中我挑出的「主句」是: 

The value of knowledge greatly relies on…accuracy…coverage…logic 【知識的價值大大基於…準確度…覆蓋度…相關邏輯…】。至於這句長難句上的狀語with the advent of …(隨著…出現)/definition of acknowledging…(知道的定義)這兩個短概念只是「狀語」,不是核心信息,在理解時可以略為放鬆。

 

另外,尤其在IELTS Academic 的文章中,經常出現一些「學術性概念」的內容(如這裡的definition of acknowledging knowledge),不太理解當中的抽象意思是正常的,只要抽取到其中的「正常人話」來理解,在找尋正確答案的層面來說,這已經90% ok的了。而這些「正常人話」,通常都會放在長難句的「主句」部份。

 

英文速讀,即不是每個字都順序來讀。有效的速讀力是由對【三大語構:主句、形容語、狀語】的辨認開始,培養出恰當「輕重之分」的能力。7+3視覺英語E版就是一個40小時的「辨7句型、分3語構」的【畫解】訓練課, 學完對速讀力的提升會有關鍵性的幫助。【按此: 40小時「關連」中學到大學英文】

 

Step 2: 因為Bodyparagraphs沒有小標題,需要找出該段topic sentence進行深度理解,了解文章的內容鋪墊。

 

第2段的topic sentence-

讓我們看看第2段的第一句:

This may seem to be an absurd question: How do you know when you are ill? 

是一句反問句(是段落過渡的作用),其目的是引出第二句,所以第2段的第二句才是topic sentence。

The initial status of knowledge always comes from intuitive feeling.

(知識的第一個狀態往往從我們的直觀而來。)可能有些同學對intuitive這學術單詞感陌生,後面一句You know you are ill because you feel ill 屬於「正常人話」,能明白「正常人話」就90% ok的了,也代表已經能對此「學術詞」理解了。

 

第3段的topic sentence- 

讓我們看看第3段的第一句:

One day you have a bad cough and always seems to be tired.  

(有一天我咳嗽得很厲害,並常感到疲倦。這表面上跟「知識的驗証」沒關係,根據我對5大鋪墊的認識,不難猜到作者在舉「現實例子」來說明知識的驗証,所以這段是【例證段】。

 

第4段的topic sentence- 

讓我們看看第4段的第一句:

The scenario is transformed. 【劇情有所改變。】很明顯,這句是本身意義不具體,但是有過渡的作用,為要引出下一句:

The status of the knowledge you claim you know has changed. 【你聲稱知道的「知識狀態」已經有所改變。】這paragraph第二句才是該段的topic sentence!(記得paragraph的第一句是topic sentence縱有65%可能,但第二句都有20%機率呢!)

 

第5段的topic sentence- 

讓我們看看第5段的第一句:

This scenario shows many different sources of knowledge are needed to verify the knowledge we claim we know.【這個劇情提示「知識」是需要不同的來源來檢驗的。】

(Paragraph第一句作topic sentence是首選!)

 

 

第6段的topic sentence- 

讓我們看看第6段的第一句:

Indeed, the knowledge we claim we know should be verified by sources【所以,我們聲稱知道的知識,應該從多重來源核實。】

 

 

Step 3: 最後理解Conclusion,看清楚作者最終交代什麼/最終立場如何。

Conclusion 段:

We never know we really know something but we only know we are approaching to know something. That’s why the verification of knowledge is always important in our life.      

 

從這句Conclusion中,我看到作者立場: 【回應大標題:知識是需要檢驗的: 因為我們永不能知道「真知道」沒有,但我們只知道我們「愈來愈接近」真知道。】一句帶點哲理性的話做結論是頗常見的。

 

其實根本不須逐字讀,用【topic sentence閱讀系統】做整篇文章的layout理解,可以快及準,「理解」如下:    

 

Introduction: 知識的價值大大基於準確度覆蓋度相關邏輯
2nd paragraph 主題句知識的第一個狀態往往從我們的直觀而來。
3rd paragraph 主題句有一天我咳嗽得很厲害,並常感到疲倦。
4th paragraph 主題句你聲稱知道的「知識狀態」已經有所改變。
5th paragraph 主題句這個劇情提示「知識」是需要不同的來源來檢驗的
6th paragraph 主題句所以,我們聲稱知道的知識,應該從多重來源核實。
Conclusion: 回應大標題:知識是需要檢驗的。

 

其實單從這些topic ideas,整篇文章的「內容鋪墊」是不難看出來的: 知識的深度(introduction),先從直觀開始(2nd paragraph),舉個例子/劇情scenario說明 (3rd -5th paragraph),需要多源性核實(6th -conclusion)。

 

 (其他細節,讓我一會看題目才慢慢找關鍵字再GPS做「相關」的理解,將時間用得其所!)

 

如果你想在IELTS Reading 十種題型上的技巧,有更到位的學習,可【按此: 7+3視覺英語IELTS Reading 考試技巧,適合A版及GT版】

關於作者 Tomato Yip

創辦了「7+3視覺英語」,透過這個【7句型+3語構的關連系統】同你一起學習中學及大學的【碎片】英文語法,使你有序由淺入深寫出意念複雜的英文句子。無論書寫工作上的電郵/Proposal/大學論文/DSE英文/IELTS考試都能行雲流水。

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